Table 4. The interpretation of results to fill the existing research gap through an integrated approach
Integrated themes Themes Perceptions (Attitudes) Lived experiences (Performance)
Main Concept Concept Codes Main Concept Concept Codes
Convergent Cultural diversity Trust Belief Religious statement at the present time in Sweden vs. Iran   Trust Delivering bad news as a form of professionalism and patient rights   Lack of giving direct Breaking bad news to patient   Do not tell the truth regarding sickness Beliefs Professionalism Patient rights Preserve patient dignity
Patient value   Patient respect   Religious respect Importance of considering patient value   Exaggeratedly doctor respect   Wearing hijab and religious manner Considering human beings in a different culture Ethics and values Patient appearance Religious Gender
Inter- personal interaction Inappropriate communication Verbal: Lack of greeting   Nonverbal: Lack of eye contact and physical touch Lack of physical movement Interpersonal interaction Verbal: Language barrier Shortage of interpreter Common language barrier   Nonverbal: Body language Inappropriate communication
Context Sociocultural situation   Distance between the doctor and the patient, a table placed between them Doctor Dominancy Patient not convinced Doctor centeredness considered as a dominant strategy about 60 years ago in Sweden Patient convinced Historical background
Int J Med Educ. 2020; 11:158-168; doi: 10.5116/ijme.5f19.5749