Table 1. Classification of laparoscopic surgery simulators
Simulator Type Description
1 Simple box (e.g. plain cardboard box) with/without a mirror with a webcam or no video
2 Box trainer: box utilizing a camera/laparoscope display light source and instruments used for laparoscopic training (e.g. Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery system)
2s Box trainer (same as Type 2) with motion sensors to measure distance and direction moved in order to calculate the economy of movement
3 Virtual reality (VR) simulators: Display-based computer software and hardware similar to that used in laparoscopic surgery
Int J Med Educ. 2020; 11:97-106; doi: 10.5116/ijme.5ea6.ae73