Table 2. Final categories (themes) resulting from data analysis
Main categories Subcategories
Language proficiency improvement English communication ability improvement (general and nursing/medical)
English presentation ability improvement
English vocabulary/grammar (general and nursing/medical)
English pronunciation/intonation improvement
English listening ability improvement and enhanced sensitivity to a variety of English accents
English group discussion ability
Learning about nursing, healthcare systems, society and culture Learning about health issues and healthcare systems
Learning about and experiencing nursing practice and education
Learning about nursing/medical-related scientific research methodology
Learning about other cultures and societies
Identity formation Cultural sensitivity/competence
Identity as an English speaker
Identity as a Japanese person
Identity as a nurse
Identity as a global citizen
Personal growth (independence, cooperativeness, broadening of worldview, confidence)
Int J Med Educ. 2020; 11:54-61; doi: 10.5116/ijme.5e47.cf1b