Table 2. Is CAM being taught in UGME?
Reference Participants Information Gathering Approach Result / Conclusion
Brinkhaus and Colleagues 20119   1,017 department directors at medical schools in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland. 487 questionnaires (response rate: 48%, country-specific response rate: A 39%; G 49%; S 42%) were returned. Standardised questionnaire 162 respondents (34%) indicated that CAM therapies had already been integrated into the curriculum (treatment 26%, research 19% and education 18%) with no significant differences between the countries. Respondents of Switzerland indicated lower activity of CAM integration (treatment 10% and research 10%) compared to Austria (28%, p = 0.016 and 28%, p = 0.016) and Germany (27%, p = 0.01 and 20%, p = 0.174).
Brokaw and Colleagues 200210 123 CAM course directors at 74 U.S. medical schools. Questionnaires were returned by 73 course directors at 53 schools. Questionnaires mailed to course directors. The 2 page questionnaire consisted of nine questions with a check-box or fill-in-the-blank format, and one space at the end for written comments. 75.3% (40/53) taught an elective CAM course, and 30.1% (16/53) taught a required course. Topics most often being taught were acupuncture (76.7%), herbs and botanicals (69.9%), meditation and relaxation (65.8%), spirituality/faith/prayer (64.4%), chiropractic (60.3%), homeopathy (57.5%), and nutrition and diets (50.7%). Amount of instructional time varied widely, but most received about two contact hours. The "typical" CAM course an elective, was most likely to be taught in the first or fourth year of medical school, and had fewer than 20 contact hours of instruction. Most of the courses (78.1%) were taught by practitioners or prescribers of CAM therapies. Few of the courses (17.8%) emphasized a scientific approach to the evaluation of CAM effectiveness.
Chitindinguand Colleagues 201416 Heads of School from seven South African medical schools Telephone survey One school was teaching both Traditional African Medicine (T.M.) and CAM, five were teaching either T.M. or CAM and another was not teaching any aspect of TCAM. Conclusion: Medical schools have not responded to government policies or contextual realities by incorporating TCAM into the curriculum for their students.
Kim and Colleagues 201211 Academic or curriculum deans and faculty at each of 41 Korean medical schools. Replies were received from all 41 schools. A mail survey was conducted from 2007 to 2010. CAM was taught at 35 schools (85.4%). Most common courses were introduction to CAM or integrative medicine (88.6%), traditional Korean medicine (57.1%), homeopathy and naturopathy (31.4%), and acupuncture (28.6%).
Rampes and Colleagues 199712 24 of 26 Deans of British medical schools responded Questionnaire Of 24 medical schools, 3 were offering teaching, and none were providing practical training. Acupuncture is included in the curricula of all three of these schools, and hypnosis, homoeopathy, manipulation and therapeutic massage in two.
Ruedy and Colleagues 199917 16 Canadian undergraduate medical schools deans or faculty members.   Telephone interview lasting approximately 30 minutes was conducted with most respondents. Most schools reported that they include CAM in their curricula (13/16), usually as part of a required course. Lectures constitute the most frequent method of information delivery, predominantly during the preclinical years. Acupuncture (in 10 schools) and homeopathic medicine (in 9 schools) were the interventions most often included. Only 2 schools reported that they provide instruction on the actual practice of one or more complementary therapies.
Sampson 200113 Survey of 125 U.S. medical schools   Questionnaire to learn of approaches to CAM in curricula. Of the 56 schools that had some form of relevant course offering, only nine had invited critical lecturers on occasion; their courses were otherwise generally supportive of CAM. Two course directors claimed to present information “neutrally,” but did not teach critical methods or invite critical lecturers. Only four courses either presented a critical orientation or offered critical arguments in a way that significantly investigated advocacy arguments.
Smith 201114 Deans of U.K. Undergraduate Medical Schools. The overall response rate was 58.1% (18/31).  Survey All respondents indicated that their curricula included CAM elements. However, the quantity of CAM within curricula varied widely between medical schools, as did the methods by which CAM education was delivered. General Medical Council requirements were the strongest factor influencing the inclusion of CAM, although medical student preferences were also important. Respondents were generally satisfied with the extent of CAM provision within their curricula, while a wide range of views on the appropriateness of CAM in the medical curriculum were held by faculty members.
Tsuruoka and Colleagues 200118 80 Japanese medical schools for Western medicine. Response rate to the telephone survey and self-completed questionnaire was 100 and 95%, respectively. 1. A telephone survey to curricular office workers in September 1998 2. A self-completed questionnaire to representatives of sponsoring departments Of 80 medical schools, CM was officially taught in 16 schools (20%). Of these 16 schools, there were 19 CM courses and the anesthesia department sponsored the most courses (six courses). All courses had oriental medicine titles such as acupuncture and Kampo except for one course.
Varga and Colleagues 200615 265 medical faculties in E.U. countries were contacted via e-mail or regular post Questionnaire of 7 questions concerning CAM education in their establishments. Only 40% of the responding universities were offering some form of CAM training. Could not show any correlation between the public demand for CAM methods and the availability of CAM training in medical universities.
Int J Med Educ. 2021; 12:140-149; doi: 10.5116/ijme.60e2.f3ed