Table 1. Interview themes and quotations
Theme Residents Assessors
Overall perception of group assessment     "I think it is a much better idea than the way it works other places. We have to have these signatures…."  (resident 4) "I think it is a very big relief to have your competences approved in this manner, because the other way [one-to-one assessment] is chaotic and random." (resident 6) "After participation, I felt very positive about the concept. I really think it was very rewarding in many ways. It was definitely something that gave new dimensions that I have not found in other places…" (assessor 1)
Group assessment versus one-to-one assessment "There are advantages and disadvantages related to both types of assessment, but I think I would personally benefit most from the one-to-one assessment. I have nothing negative to say about group assessment. I think [group assessment] is a good way to have your competences approved." (resident 2) "It is academically very enriching that many fields of medicine are gathered. We come together and discuss – which is the opposite of what my fellow residents experience in other places. I have previously participated in one-to-one assessments where you just meet with your supervisor and look at a couple of medical records and then the supervisor says: "It looks good" and there is no more discussion.… So, I would definitely say that it is worthwhile to use 5 hours 4 times a year on group assessments where many provide me with feedback." (resident 4) "One-to-one assessments are very shallow. It is a bit like: "Well, this looks good. Do you have any comments?" and "We have to have this signed". There was very little content in the one-to-one assessment and it was done because we had to do it, not in order to achieve anything." (assessor 1)
Outcome regarding learning, motivation and attitude   "Well, the good thing is that we come from different fields of medicine. This is valuable as if you, for instance, present a case with a rheumatologic disease, then it is exciting to hear what the doctors in the field of rheumatology have to say about the case." (resident 5) "I look at it as a good opportunity to discuss common challenges. I mean certain types of patients and illnesses. So, I see it more as an opportunity for discussion than an assessment of my competences."  (resident 4) "….I am, for instance, a specialist in gastroenterology and I supervise a resident, but I also have to approve competences that are outside the field I normally deal with." (assessor 3) "I think it works well; you get through a lot of topics during group assessment…." (assessor 3)
Context and structure regarding preparation, time used, case presentation and the moderator "Group assessments are announced well ahead of time. You know what the topics are so you pay attention to them in your daily clinical work – if you encounter something exciting. You want to find a case with substance that you think is interesting for your colleagues to hear about." (resident 5) "I think the length of the session was very suitable. You can feel a bit tired at the end, but I don't think it is a problem. I have tried to attend something for just five minutes where I have been more tired. It is, after all, a matter of how interesting it is." (resident 4) "There has been a tendency to pick good and exciting cases. However, in our field, we could be better at presenting what is difficult or unclear, because that is what we often encounter in our daily clinical work…" (resident 1) "The cases that are presented are cases that were challenging and difficult. …… It has to be a case where you were challenged while on night shift or on the ward round or something else, where you had a hard time solving the problem, and then you can present this issue." (resident 2) "The moderator makes sure that everyone gets to present and contribute to the discussion, and this ensures that everyone is well prepared for the session." (resident 4) "The second time I participated, it worked out really well. ……... The residents all came well prepared and we did too. Everyone was set on getting a really good discussion of the cases." (assessor 2) "I have been very positively surprised about how well prepared the residents have been, also with regard to background knowledge…" (assessor 4) "We talked a lot about how important it is to have someone to steer the meeting and that the moderator makes sure everyone has contributed to the discussion, or when it is necessary to confront residents who have been less active in the discussion." (assessor 4) "I think the whole concept depends on a really good moderator who can steer the meeting and make sure that the purpose of the group assessment is met, which is that all residents get their competences approved." (assessor 4)
Relation "When you come to a new department and join the group assessment, it is also a good place for social networking, because you have five hours together…. you are in dialogue with the others and feel safe." (resident 1)  
Int J Med Educ. 2021; 12:64-73; doi: 10.5116/ijme.606a.eb39