Table 4. Qualitative confidence domains, themes and corresponding subcategories
Domains Themes Subcategories Quotations of participants
Confidence Influencers Experience Own experience “I’m still anxious because it's my first attempt to manage these on my own fully.”
“I'm quite nervous since I haven't prescribed it very often.”
“I'm uncertain as I haven't yet attended a medical ward.”
  Knowledge Recognition (dosage, side effects and adverse events of medication) “I'm concerned about complications in case we do not know or recall precisely the cautions of those medications.”
  “I’m anxious about the safety of my patients if I can't remember their dosages accurately.”
Correct diagnosis of STEMI “I will be confident if the case and ECG are evidently obvious. If it's not apparent, I will priorly consult the residents or our staff.”
  Providing guidelines Standing order provided “Whereas I somewhat know, but I’m not certain, I’d rather prescribe medication as stated in the standing order.”
  Mentoring Mentorship “I’m quite confident because I have already seen and managed two cases under the supervision of the residents.”
Confidence Builders Experience Own experience “Previously, I used to prescribe this medication before, so I’m pretty sure to do it again.”
“I’m studying in a medical ward where I have been practising reading ECGs with the STEMI cases. Therefore, I’m quite sure when I see the cases fit with their ECG.”
  Knowledge Self-directed learning “Practice reading ECG accurately is essential.”
  “Self-review of the lessons would help me remember better.”
  “I have to memorise the drug dosage or make a summary note so that I can easily find it later.”
Teaching in class “Case-based teaching helps me in managing the patient with STEMI by myself.”
  Providing guidelines Guidelines provided “I feel more confident when I follow the guideline of STEMI.”
  Mentoring Mentorship “Should ask/ consult the attending physicians or residents to confirm my case.”
“It would be helpful if someone could observe and assist me while I’m reading the ECG of STEMI cases.”
“In my opinion, mentoring and approval of my diagnosis of STEMI and prescription order of essential medications by teachers and/or residents could build up my confidence in prescription.”
Int J Med Educ. 2022; 13:187-197; doi: 10.5116/ijme.62c2.c33c