Table 2. Themes and subthemes predominant amongst medical students
Medical Students Midwifery Students
4.      Experiential learning  
·        Personal stress response to real-time emergencies MED 32: “…that lack of adrenaline means a valuable facet was lost from the demonstration” MED 53: “When in person … It would be good to be challenged to think what the next step would be after each thing is done.” ·        Personal stress response to real-time emergencies MW 18: “In person is great to …get a feel for a true emergency situation”  
·        Lack of physical interaction MED 10: “…there is something invaluable about interacting with strangers in a shared space rather than a virtual one, which can feel a bit impersonal” MED 9: “Zoom doesn’t allow for those less formal conversations that may happen in person between disciplines which often allow you to bond…” MED 82: “I don't really like it [online interprofessional interaction] as much as it feels a lot more formal and awkward than in person” MED 83: “…it is always nice to meet face to face with other students to build that relationship and rapport.” MED 71: “It feels more awkward to participate on zoom and communication can sometimes be hampered.” ·        Lack of physical interaction MW 9: “I think that it is difficult to build interactions and practice simulations for ourselves to practice interprofessional relationships and working as a team”MW 9: “The workshop was good to talk to medical students…however I feel this would have been better in a face-to-face interaction” MW 8: “I still think I prefer the in-person interactions over the zoom.”
·        Learning by doing MED 1: “It was a bit difficult to learn this over zoom, especially because we didn’t have the opportunity to be hands on and try to complete these emergencies ourselves.” MED 3: “…how its management occurs in real life. Learning this via zoom was not very effective in general as I feel watching someone perform tasks is much less helpful than getting to practice in a simulated environment.”  MED 16: “I think in person where I can get involved would be extremely valuable…” MED 17: “Being in person probably allows us to be a bit more hands on…” MED 42: “…I do think it would be better in person as you can get a greater understanding with hands on experience.” MED 8: “…we were not able to be hands on and learn by doing.” MED 53: “When in person…we can take turns to actually do what was done in the video on models (shoulder dystocia manoeuvres, resus etc).” MED 84: “…there’s something lost in being unable to experience a run-through physically (so we can develop a sort of muscle memory…” ·        Learning by doing MW 3: “Watching via Zoom is obviously nothing like practising the skill itself, so it was difficult to increase my confidence in the recognition and management of these emergencies by Zoom observation only” MW 7: “…would have been a lot more beneficial had we done the sessions in person as we would have been able to do hands on practice (which I learn better doing compared to watching others do the simulation).” MW 18: “…in person running through the steps physically provided greater learning for me…”MW 7: …for me personally I am much less likely to remember what everyone does in different scenarios if I can’t actually be a part of the physical simulation .”
·        Clinical skills confidence MED 36: “Learnt how to perform sensitive examinations such as bi manual, speculum and vaginal exams…” MED 28: “I learnt examination technique and what to look for and skills that will definitely help me feel more confident with approaching the clinical environment…” ·        Clinical skills confidence MW 14: “Developed a better understanding of VE technique and use of speculum”MW 16: “Variations in vaginal examinations, tips & tricks on how to best perform these examinations with comfort, ease and accuracy for the woman.”MW 13: “I learnt how to do a vaginal exam, high & low & dilation of the woman. Along with the delivery of the baby and the placenta.”
·        Creating realism through e-learning MED 25: “The simulation was very realistic and was able to convey the emotion, intensity…in such a situation” MED 24: It was also good to see the different emergencies play out at the same time, and it gives us a good perspective on how an obstetric emergency can play out in real life.” “…it was… an opportunity to feel like you were right in with the team…” MED 22: “…the video we were given to watch was well done and quite realistic.” MED 73: “This was my first insight into more real time management of an obstetric emergency…I thought the video was well filmed.” ·        Creating realism through e-learning MW 7: “…it was good to see everything happening as though one scenario as opposed to three different situations”
5.      Learning through modelling
·        Interpersonal interactions MED 12: “I learnt how a well-drilled team makes management of an emergency flow smoothly…everyone in the group was aware of not only their own skills, but the skills of all team members, and this allowed leadership to flow to the right person for the right task” MED 5: “I was able to see the interventions that I have studied play out in a well-oiled team environment…” MED 33: “I was able to view the procedure from a ‘fly on the wall’ perspective and was able to focus on what was happening everywhere…rather than…if I was participating in the emergency simulation myself” MED 42: “I thought the ONE-Sim video that we watched was an extremely valuable learning resource, as it gives us an ability to visualize how an obstetric emergency actually takes place and we get to see how the most experienced professionals do it.” MED 14: “From what we’ve seen, there’s good rapport between the health professionals present and during the process there’s good communication to ensure efficiency with management.” MED 18: “It was good at showing us how midwives, obstetricians, junior trainees and paediatricians all work together and have designated jobs and how they communicate most effectively!” MED 25: “…does enable us to see good examples which we can mimic at a later opportunity.” MED 64: “I have learnt about… the manner in which people work and communicate effectively…learning via Zoom worked well for this workshop, as it allowed to us learn and observe without having to completely focus on doing an activity which may have otherwise resulted in us giving less focus to the content.” ·        Perceiving individual’s projected roles MW 18: “…these sessions have been a fantastic way to start to think more in depth about my role and how to act/respond in these situations”
·        Intrapersonal emotional regulation MED 39: “…the environment in an obstetric emergency can rapidly degenerate into one of panic…we need to be extremely proficient in our approach to an obstetric emergency so we can collect ourselves and respond adequately” ·        Interpersonal interactions MW 9: “I think this will improve my communication skills such as clinical handovers as you can see the importance of giving succinct information in obstetric emergencies”MW 6: “It was useful…as it reminding me that there are multiple professionals involved in a situation and everyone should work together to fulfill their tasks and improve the outcome for the patient”  MW 5: “By attending the zoom, I have had an opportunity to observe the communication and roles among different health professionals, which could be quite hard when attending in person”
·        Patient centredness MED 34: “I learnt about the importance of communicating with the mother about what is occurring in an emergency” ·        Intrapersonal emotional regulation and demeanour MW 5: “I think I’ll be more calm during emergencies. By viewing the management from a third person’s angle, I can see … what are occurring at the same time, which means that if I’m the leader, I can make sure these things are done in the same situation

MED: Medical student, e.g., MED 58 indicates a survey response from the 58th medical student who completed the survey; MW: Midwifery student, e.g., MW 24 indicates a survey response from the 24th midwifery student who completed the survey

Int J Med Educ. 2022; 13:287-304; doi: 10.5116/ijme.6342.9214