Table 2C. Results of a thematic analysis - Challenges of PBL
Code Subtheme Theme
Tutor allocation procedure Tutoring inconsistency Learning resources
Tutors' facilitation quality
Difference between expert and non-expert tutors
Response to call for support Less support to student's needs
Scenarios used in the past Ineffective scenarios
Easy scenarios
Too specific or too broad contents
Participation of simulated patient Unfunctional structure of PBL tutorials
Discussion progress
Time for self-learning and tutorials
Self-assessment Invalid assessments Assessments
Peer assessment
Tutor assessment
Free-riders in group discussion Unfavorable attitude of peers Student’s learning behaviors
Selfish group members
Allocation of group members
Personality difference
Knowledge gap among students
Cultural gap
Same referencing Inefficient learning process
Prior learning condition
Confusing study objectives
Time to cope the scenarios provided
Knowledge gap between the PBL program and clinical clerkship Limited application for practice Limitations of the application
Difficulty in the application of learning outcome in PBL
Regret about PBL Negative perspectives for PBL Reflection of student perspectives
Insisting on the PBL program
Complementary to lectures
Int J Med Educ. 2022; 13:322-334; doi: 10.5116/ijme.6399.dee1